As smart watches and fitness trackers explode in popularity, so is a new type of health and wellness tech marketed as being able to monitor and manipulate brain functions. Direct-to-consumer “neurotechnology” is a rapidly growing industry, predicted to top $3 billion by 2020.

However, many neurotechnology products are not regulated as medical devices, which UBC professor of neuroethics Dr. Peter Reiner believes is cause for concern. He and co-author Anna Wexler of the University of Pennsylvania outlined their concerns in an essay published recently in the journal Science.

In a Q&A with UBC Media Affairs, Dr. Reiner explains why there is a need for more oversight of neurotechnologies.