How are transient experiences converted into long-lasting memories? How do experiences modify behaviors? How do similar experiences elicit drastically different behavioral responses in the healthy and disease states? These are some of the questions that drive the research in my lab. We particularly focus on the mechanisms underlying the reconfiguration of neural circuits following sensory and behavioral experiences that leads to functional adaptation. While we know in many cases the brain regions that are involved, the identity of the neurons that encode the information and the particular information that is processed are not easy to determine with standard molecular or systems approaches. To overcome these challenges my lab has developed a new set of genetic tools that have enabled us to genetically identify neuronal ensembles activated by sensory and behavioral experiences, uncover essential circuit components involved in different aspects of learning and memory, and explore the mechanisms by which learning is specifically coupled to synaptic changes on these ensembles to achieve behavioral adaptation. My talk will highlight both published and ongoing studies in my lab.